Microbial mutualistic cross-feeding interactions are ubiquitous and can drive important community functions. Engaging in cross-feeding undoubtedly affects the physiology and metabolism of individual species involved. However, the nature in which an individual’s physiology is influenced by cross-feeding and the importance of those physiological changes for the mutualism have received little attention. We previously developed a genetically tractable coculture to study bacterial mutualisms. The coculture consists of fermentative Escherichia coli and phototrophic Rhodopseudomonas palustris In this coculture, E. coli anaerobically ferments sugars into excreted organic acids as a carbon source for R. palustris In return, a genetically-engineered R. palustris constitutively converts N2 into NH4+, providing E. coli with essential nitrogen. Using RNA-seq and proteomics, we identified transcript and protein levels that differ in each partner when grown in coculture versus monoculture. When in coculture with R. palustris, E. coli gene-expression changes resembled a nitrogen starvation response under the control of the transcriptional regulator NtrC. By genetically disrupting E. coli NtrC, we determined that a nitrogen starvation response is important for a stable coexistence, especially at low R. palustris NH4+ excretion levels. Destabilization of the nitrogen starvation regulatory network resulted in variable growth trends and in some cases, extinction. Our results highlight that alternative physiological states can be important for survival within cooperative cross-feeding relationships.
This work was part of a terrific collaboration led by the McKinlay Lab at Indiana University.