Reversible amyloids of pyruvate kinase couple cell metabolism and stress granule disassembly

Cereghetti G, Wilson-Zbinden C, Kissling VM, Diether M, Arm A, Yoo H, Piazza I, Saad S, Picotti P, Drummond DA, Sauer U, Dechant R, Peter M, Nature Cell Biology 23 :1085–1094 (2021).
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Cells respond to stress by blocking translation, rewiring metabolism and forming transient messenger ribonucleoprotein assemblies called stress granules (SGs). After stress release, re-establishing homeostasis and disassembling SGs requires ATP-consuming processes. However, the molecular mechanisms whereby cells restore ATP production and disassemble SGs after stress remain poorly understood. Here we show that upon stress, the ATP-producing enzyme Cdc19 forms inactive amyloids, and that their rapid re-solubilization is essential to restore ATP production and disassemble SGs in glucose-containing media. Cdc19 re-solubilization is initiated by the glycolytic metabolite fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, which directly binds Cdc19 amyloids, allowing Hsp104 and Ssa2 chaperone recruitment and aggregate re-solubilization. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate then promotes Cdc19 tetramerization, which boosts its activity to further enhance ATP production and SG disassembly. Together, these results describe a molecular mechanism that is critical for stress recovery and directly couples cellular metabolism with SG dynamics via the regulation of reversible Cdc19 amyloids.